Currently, Chile has an indigenous population of close to 1.6 million people, which constitutes 9% of the population. Within this percentage, the Mapuche people are the predominant indigenous group, representing the 84% and followed by the Aymara people (7.7%). There are also other communities such as the Rapa Nui or Eastern Island people (0.2%), the Atacama communities (1.5%), Quechuas (1.9%) and Collas (0.8%) located in the North of the country, as well as the Kawashkar or Alacalufe and Yamana or Yagan (0.3%), located in the South of Chile.
In 2016, only 30 indigenous women from 26 districts were named municipal councilors and represented the 1.3% of a total of 2,224 elected councilors across the country. Although the ratification of the ILO Convention No. 169 has made progress in the normative context of indigenous rights and women's participation in economic activities and politic processes, there is still a substantial gap between institutional promises and the progress made in situ. Indigenous women continue to face profound social, cultural and economic inequalities with greater poverty rates, lower work participation rates, higher levels of gender violence and lower educational levels.
While they have worked to reach similar levels of academic achievement and alphabetization parity, together with a particular progress on the tertiary education levels and work activities, the difference between the participation rates of men and women is still high (80% for men, 57% for women).
The socioeconomic and cultural development expectations for the country have not been able to end social inequality between indigenous and non-indigenous population. The Millennium Development Goals' state of progress among the indigenous population shows important challenges in terms of the gaps between the indigenous and non-indigenous people when it comes to poverty, education, gender equality, sustainable development and international cooperation.